(فرهاد زعفری هشجین مدرس دانشگاه هتلداری) مولف کتابهای تخصصی
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خيلى ها تخته گوشت چوبى را به دلايل زيباشناختى ترجيح مى دهند اما بعضى ها هم تخته هاى چوبى را به دليل باقى ماندن ميكروب در آن مردود مى دانند. شايد اين تصور از تبليغاتى كه براى تخته گوشت هاى پلاستيكى مى شود ناشى شده.
اما تجربه نشان مى دهد تخته چوبى هيچ ضررى ندارد. اين تخته ها بهداشتى تر هستند و در واقع براى كارد هم تخته چوبى بهتر است. شايع است كه تخته چوبى متخلخل است و موجودات ريز مضر مانند سالمونلا،اى كولاى و ليستريا در آن خانه مى كنند و پاك كردن آنها از سطح تخته چوبى مشكل است و هر ماده غذايى ديگرى كه روى آن قرار بگيرد به آسانى آلوده مى شود. از طرفى مى گويند پلاستيك نفوذ ناپذير است و خيلى آسان تر و بهتر تميز مى شود.
به رغم وجود اين همه شايعات هيچ كس حتى مسئولان بهداشتى اين گفته ها را تا سال ???? آزمايش نكرده بودند. در آن زمان ميكروبيولوژيست هاى موسسه تحقيقات غذايى دانشگاه ويسكانسين تخته گوشت چوبى و پلاستيكى را به انواع باكترى هاى ايجادكننده مسموميت هاى غذايى آلوده كردند. چه اتفاقى افتاد؟ بدون شست وشو يا لمس تخته ها، باكترى هايى كه روى تخته چوبى بودند ظرف سه دقيقه از بين رفتند. اما باكترى هايى كه روى تخته پلاستيكى بودند نه تنها زنده ماندند بلكه در طول يك شب چند برابر شدند.
به اين ترتيب به نظر مى رسد چوب خاصيت ميكروب كشى طبيعى دارد كه پلاستيك فاقد آن است. با اين حال اگر در رستوران یا خانه تخته پلاستيكى داريد لازم نيست آن را دور بيندازيد و با عجله براى خريد تخته چوبى از خانه بيرون برويد. تا زمانى كه تخته پلاستيكى خود را با مواد ضدباكترى بشوييد خطرى شما را تهديد نمى كند.
با این حال به شما توسعه می کنیم از تخته گوشت پلاستیکی استفاده نکنید
بهداشت غذاFood hygiene
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Published by Bupa's health information team, September 2008. This factsheet is for people who are concerned about food hygiene, or who would like information about it. Food hygiene is vital to prevent food poisoning. If you prepare food for yourself or others, it's important to know how to clean, store, prepare and cook food hygienically. About food hygiene Improving hygiene Special occasions Eating out Further information Questions and answers Related topics Sources About food hygiene Anyone can get food poisoning but some people, including babies, children, older people, pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems, are more likely to have serious symptoms. Around 80,000 people in the UK report food poisoning each year. Food poisoning has a range of symptoms, including diarrhoea, stomach pains, nausea and vomiting. Depending on the cause and the person affected, it can lead to gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines), more serious illness, organ failure or even death. What causes food poisoning? Food poisoning is usually caused by micro-organisms (germs), including bacteria, viruses and moulds. The spread of these germs can be prevented by practising good food hygiene. The most serious types of food poisoning are caused by bacteria. Bacteria multiply best in a moist environment between 5°C and 63°C. Just a single bacterium on an item of food, left out of the fridge overnight, could generate many millions of bacteria by the morning, enough to make you ill if eaten. Storing food below 5°C prevents bacteria from multiplying, and cooking food at temperatures over 70°C will kill off any existing bacteria. Bacteria that cause food poisoning are found in many foods, including: meat and meat products - in particular poultry, minced meat and patés seafood eggs and raw egg products - in particular mayonnaise unpasteurised milk (or milk contaminated after pasteurisation) soft and mould-ripened cheeses cooked foods - in particular fried rice and pasta (especially if these haven't been cooled and stored properly - see Storing food correctly) unwashed fruit and vegetables How you become ill Food poisoning from bacteria can occur in different ways. Some bacteria release poisons called toxins, which may give you symptoms of food poisoning soon after the food is eaten. Other bacteria multiply in the body first before causing symptoms. The delay between eating the contaminated food and developing symptoms is known as the incubation period - this can be a few hours or up to a few days. Improving hygiene Maintaining high levels of personal and kitchen hygiene are important and effective ways to stop germs from spreading. Wash your hands and nails with hot, soapy water before handling food, between handling cooked and uncooked foods, and after going to the toilet. Rinse your hands well and dry them on a clean hand towel, a disposable paper towel, or under a hand dryer. Wet hands transfer germs more effectively than dry hands. Use different cloths for different jobs (eg washing up and cleaning surfaces). Wash them regularly on the hot cycle or soak in a dilute solution of bleach. Wipe down and disinfect surfaces and utensils regularly, using a detergent or dilute solution of bleach - always read the safety instructions first. Wash up using hot, soapy water - use rubber gloves if necessary. Don't handle food if you have stomach problems such as diarrhoea and vomiting, or if you're sneezing or coughing frequently. Cover up cuts and sores with waterproof plasters. If possible, remove rings, watches and bracelets before handling food. Germs can hide under these. Bacteria can spread from raw food, in particular meat, to food that has already been cooked or is eaten raw, such as salads. Use separate chopping boards for preparing raw meat, poultry and seafood and for fresh produce such as salads, fruit and vegetables. Never use a marinade that has already been used on raw meat for cooked food, unless it has been boiled thoroughly. Always use a clean plate to serve food. After using a knife or other utensil on raw meat, clean it thoroughly before using it on other foods. Storing food correctly It's very important that food is stored in the right place (eg fridge or freezer) and at the correct temperature. Always check labels for guidance on where and how long to store food, in particular, fresh or frozen food. Store fresh or frozen food in the fridge or freezer within two hours of purchase - sooner if the weather is hot. Allow meal leftovers to cool to room temperature before storing them in the fridge, ideally within two hours of preparation. If necessary, divide leftovers into smaller portions to help food cool more quickly. Use up leftovers within two days. Cooked rice should only be kept for one day. Store raw food such as meat in airtight containers at the bottom of the fridge to prevent juices or blood from dripping onto other food. Defrost frozen foods in the fridge. Place them on a plate or in a container as they defrost so they don't drip on or contaminate other foods. Don't overfill the fridge - food may not cool properly. Keep the fridge at less than 5°C and the freezer at less than -18°C - consider getting a thermometer. Don't store opened tins of food in the fridge - transfer the contents to a suitable airtight container instead. Cooking food safely If food isn't cooked at a high enough temperature, bacteria can still survive. The following advice will help you to cook safely. Follow the recipe or packet instructions for cooking time and temperature, ensuring the oven is pre-heated properly. Food should be piping hot (steaming) before serving. Take special care that pork, sausages, burgers and poultry are cooked through and aren't pink in the middle. Using a clean skewer, pierce the meat. When cooked properly, the juices run clear. Lamb and beef joints and steaks can be cooked rare, but must be thoroughly sealed (browned) on the outside. Don't cook foods too far in advance. Keep cooked foods covered and piping hot until served. When microwaving, stir food well from time to time to ensure even cooking. Only reheat food once and serve piping hot. Use a food thermometer to check that food is cooked to the right temperature. Eggs contain harmful bacteria which can be dangerous to pregnant women, older people and babies. Don't serve eggs with runny yolks, or egg-containing foods that won't be cooked, for example homemade mayonnaise. Special occasions Even if you're usually careful about food hygiene, it's very easy to slip up on special occasions such as barbecues, picnics or parties. Here are some tips on how to keep food safe. Consider fridge space. Don't buy food too far in advance and transfer drinks bottles/cans to ice-buckets. Don't leave party foods that normally need to be refrigerated at room temperature for hours. Serve individual portions and keep leftovers stored in the fridge. Keep all serving bowls covered until the last minute. When preparing a picnic, take the food out of the fridge at the last minute and use a cool bag to keep it chilled and covered until you eat. Consider taking antiseptic hand wipes. Wash fruit and salad items before you leave. For barbecues, only start cooking when the charcoals are glowing red with a layer of grey ash and move the food around the grill. Always check that food is cooked through. Food which is charred on the outside might not be cooked on the inside. Serve food straight away or keep it in a hot oven until you're ready to eat. Consider pre-cooking poultry or sausages in the oven, then finish off on the barbecue. Prevent cross-contamination by using separate cool bags, plates and utensils for raw and cooked meat. Eating out When eating out, it's also important to consider food hygiene. You can't usually inspect the kitchens in restaurants, cafés or pubs, but there are certain warning signs of poor hygiene standards that you can look out for: dirty dining areas, toilets, cutlery or crockery rubbish and overflowing bins outside - these could attract vermin staff with dirty uniforms, dirty fingernails or with long hair not tied back hair or insects in food raw food and ready to eat food displayed together hot food that isn't cooked through properly and cold food that is served lukewarm If you're concerned about the hygiene standards of a restaurant or takeaway outlet, or you think you may have food poisoning, report the case to the environmental health service of your local authority (council). This will help to ensure that other people don't suffer in the same way
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